Guide The Phylogenetic Classification of Diptera Cyclorrhapha

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online The Phylogenetic Classification of Diptera Cyclorrhapha file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with The Phylogenetic Classification of Diptera Cyclorrhapha book. Happy reading The Phylogenetic Classification of Diptera Cyclorrhapha Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF The Phylogenetic Classification of Diptera Cyclorrhapha at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF The Phylogenetic Classification of Diptera Cyclorrhapha Pocket Guide.

Part of the Bayesian tree of dataset PCG Phylogenetic relationships among the Muscoidea and Oestroidea remains controversial [ 67 ]. Michelsen et al. Based on four mitochondrial and four nuclear genes sequenced from exemplar species, Kutty et al.

These relationships were subsequently supported by Kutty et al. The robust inference of relationships within the Muscoidea and Oestroidea still needs further investigation, so we tested the phylogenetic position of each of the four families in the Muscoidea. This result is different from most previous studies which found Oestroidea to be monophyletic, and Muscoidea as a paraphyletic grade at the base of Oestroidea [ 1 , 4 , 5 , 7 ]. In all analyses Scathophagidae is sister to Anthomyiidae and relative derived within the muscoidea i.

These results contradict previous conclusions based on morphological characters that Scathophagidae retained a more plesiomorphic conditions than any other group [ 68 ]. The different topologies in our study may be due to the compositional bias of mt genome data, particularly at third codon positions as has been proposed for other insect mt genome phylogenies [ 28 , 32 , 54 , 69 ]. In this study, however, removal of third codon positions did not stabilize the topology as all three recovered topologies were found in the subset of 4 analyses that omitted third codon positions.

Further studies with more sampling species are crucial for better understanding relationships within the Cyclorrhapha. Of the 4 alignment datasets used to estimate muscoid phylogeny, PCG was used to estimate divergence times as it had the highest node support in initial phylogenetic assessment and the topology of this dataset was the most representative one the main tree among all of datasets.

This result is consistent with the evidence from a number of amber specimens of Acalyptrata and Calyptratae [ 70 ]. Our estimation of interfamilial divergences of Muscoidea shows broad confidence intervals, suggesting possible limitations in the use of mt genomic data for divergence time estimation. First, broad confidence intervals may reflect difficulties in modeling the inherently heterogeneous patterns of mutation of various PCGs in the mt genome [ 71 — 72 ].

Alternatively, when using all the three sites of PCGs to estimate the divergence time, the saturated nucleotide sites may overestimate the branching times [ 73 ]. In general, the phylogeny inferred from mt genomes indicated that both the superfamily Muscoidea and Oestroidea were polyphyletic, and that interfamily relationships among Muscoidea and Oestroidea are still unresolved. It is worth noting that mt genes are physically linked, and they act as a single locus, so they may alternatively simply illustrate the evolution of mt genomes within this clade, the analysis of additional taxa and nuclear gene data would be helpful for better understanding the relationships of Calyptratae.

We express our sincere thanks to Ms. Jinying Yang and Ms. Lei Zhang Beijing for collecting the specimens. SLC was funded by an Australian Research Council Future Fellowship FT The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. PLoS One. Published online Jul Stephen L. Bi-Song Yue, Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Received Mar 12; Accepted Jul 6. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. S1 Table: Primers used in this study. S2 Table: The best partitioning scheme selected by PartitionFinder for different dataset. S3 Table: Organization of the mt genome of Euryomma sp. S4 Table: Organization of the mt genome of Delia platura.

Account Options

S5 Table: Codon usage of the Euryomma sp. S6 Table: Codon usage of the Delia platura mt genome. Abstract Muscoidea is a significant dipteran clade that includes house flies Family Muscidae , latrine flies F. Material and Methods Ethics statement No specific permits were required for the insects collected for this study. Phylogenetic Analysis Phylogenetic analysis was conducted on a taxon set of 17 species of Brachycera, including 15 cyclorrhaphans and 2 outgroup species from the families Tabanidae and Nemestrinidae, which belong to the basal Brachycera and non-heteroneuran muscomorphs respectively.

Table 1 Taxon sampling and availability. Open in a separate window. Results and Discussion General features of Fanniidae and Anthomyiidae mt genomes The near complete mt genomes of Euryomma sp. Fig 1. Mitochondrial maps of two muscoid flies.

Diptera: Cyclorrhapha. - PDF Drive

Table 2 Mitochondrial nucleotide composition in six muscoid flies. Region Delia Euryomma. Fig 2. Predicted secondary structure of the lrRNA gene in muscoid flies. Fig 3. Predicted secondary structure of the srRNA gene in muscoid flies. Fig 4. Phylogenetic tree based on mt genome data. Fig 5. Evolutionary timescale for Calyptratae inferred from a mitochondrial PCG dataset. TIF Click here for additional data file. S1 Table Primers used in this study. DOCX Click here for additional data file. S2 Table The best partitioning scheme selected by PartitionFinder for different dataset.

S3 Table Organization of the mt genome of Euryomma sp. S4 Table Organization of the mt genome of Delia platura. S5 Table Codon usage of the Euryomma sp. S6 Table Codon usage of the Delia platura mt genome. Acknowledgments We express our sincere thanks to Ms. References 1. The Muscoidea Diptera: Calyptratae are paraphyletic: evidence from four mitochondrial and four nuclear genes.

Syst Entomol. McAlpine JF. Mol Phylogenet Evol. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Michelsen V. Revision of the aberrant new-world genus Coenosopsia Diptera, Anthomyiidae , with a discussion of anthomyiid relationships. The phylogenetic relationships among infraorders and superfamilies of Diptera based on morphological evidence.

Time flies, a new molecular time scale for brachyceran fly evolution without a clock.

Biology Plantae part 3 (Phylogenetic classification system) CBSE class 11 XI

Syst Biol. Intraspecific phylogeography: the mitochondrial DNA bridge between population genetics and systematics. Ann Rev Ecol Syst. Harrison RG. Animal Mitochondrial DNA as a genetic marker in population and evolutionary biology. Trend Ecol Evol. Hillis DM. Molecular versus morphological approaches to systematics. Evolution of animal mitochondrial DNA: relevance for population biology and systematics.

Product Details

Quicke DLJ. Principles and Techniques of Contemporary Taxonomy. Avise JC. Molecular Markers Natural History and Evolution. Evolution, weighting, and phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial gene sequences and a compilation of conserved polymerase chain reaction primers. Ann Entomol Soc Am.

The Phylogenetic Classification of Diptera Cyclorrhapha

Molecular Systematics. Sunderland: Sinauer Associates Inc.

Publishers; The mitochondrial genome of the firefly, Pyrocoelia rufa : complete DNA sequence, genome organization, and phylogenetic analysis with other insects. The first mitochondrial genome for the fishfly subfamily Chauliodinae and implications for the higher phylogeny of Megaloptera. Plos One. Cameron SL. Insect mitochondrial genomics: Implications for evolution and phylogeny. The mitochondrial DNA molecule of Drosophila yakuba : nucleotide sequence, gene organization, and genetic code. J Mol Evol.

Ashburner M. Drosophila : a Laboratory Manual. How to sequence and annotate insect mitochondrial genomes for systematic and comparative genomics research. Hall TA. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser. MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol. Patterns of nucleotide composition at fourfold degenerate sites of animal mitochondrial genomes. Characteristics of the nuclear 18S, 5.

Insect Mol Biol. The mitochondrial genome of the ascalaphid owfly Libelloides macaronius and comparative evolutionary mitochondriomics of neuropterid insects. BMC Genomics. A mitochondrial genome phylogeny of Diptera: whole genome sequence data accurately resolve relationships over broad timescales with high precision. Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrial DNA: completion of the nucleotide sequence and evolutionary comparisons. Sequential adaptive introgression of the mitochondrial genome in Drosophila yakuba and Drosophila santomea.

Mol Ecol. The mitochondrial genome of the common cattle grub, Hypoderma lineatum. Med Vet Entomol. The mitochondrial genome of Elodia flavipalpis Aldrich Diptera: Tachinidae and the evolutionary timescale of tachinid flies. The mitochondrial genome of the blowfly Chrysomya chloropyga Diptera: Calliphoridae. The complete mitochondrial genome of the gall-forming fly, Fergusonina taylori Nelson and Yeates Diptera: Fergusoninidae. Mitochondrial DNA. The complete mitochondrial genomes of Musca domestica and Scathophaga stercoraria Diptera: Muscoidea: Muscidae and Scathophagidae.

Accessed 27 August Structure and evolution of the mitochondrial genomes of Haematobia irritans and Stomoxis calcitrans : the Muscidae Diptera: Calyptratae perspective. Nucleic Acids Res. SequenceMatrix: concatenation software for the fast assembly of multi-gene datasets with character set and codon information. PartitionFinder: Combined selection of partitioning schemes and substitution models for phylogenetic analysis.

Stamatakis A. Ronquist F, Huelsenbeck JP. MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Drummond AJ, Rambaut A. BMC Evol Biol. Relaxed phylogenetics and dating with confidence. Plos Biology. Complete mtDNA genomes of Anopheles darlingi and an approach to anopheline divergence time.

Phylogenetic Classification Diptera Cyclorrhapha

Malaria J. Domestication of olive fly through a multi-regional host shift to cultivated olives: Comparative dating using complete mitochondrial genomes. Alessandra Pinheiro Chaves. A phylogenetic, revised classification of genera in the Drosophilidae Diptera. David A Grimaldi. Diptera of Canada Jade Savage , Art.

Customer Reviews

Mathis , Luciane Marinoni. Hennig's orphans revisited: testing morphological hypotheses in the "Opomyzoidea" Diptera: Schizophora. Isaac S. Winkler , Alessandra Rung , Sonja J. The Muscoidea Diptera: Calyptratae are paraphyletic: Evidence from four mitochondrial and four nuclear genes. Wiegmann , Rudolf Meier. A new family and genus of acalypterate flies from the Neotropical region, with a phylogenetic analysis of Carnoidea family relationships Diptera, Schizophora Matthias Buck.

References Publications referenced by this paper. Structure and development of the reproductive system of some species of Nematocera order Diptera: suborder Nematocera. Grundlagen einer Monographie der Dorilaiden Diptera. The pupal development of the male genital disc of Eucalliphora.