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Ghrelin: structure and function. Guan, X. Distribution of mRNA encoding the growth hormone secretagogue receptor in brain and peripheral tissues. Brain Res. Mitchell, V. Cowley, M. The distribution and mechanism of action of ghrelin in the CNS demonstrates a novel hypothalamic circuit regulating energy homeostasis. Neuron 37 , — Pinto, S. Rapid rewiring of arcuate nucleus feeding circuits by leptin. Science , — Banks, W. Extent and direction of ghrelin transport across the blood-brain barrier is determined by its unique primary structure. Wortley, K. Absence of ghrelin protects against early-onset obesity.

Seyler, D. Effect of growth hormone secretagogue LY on IGF-1, growth hormone, and cortisol levels in beagle dogs after one and seven daily oral doses. Drug Dev. Sarter, M. Attenuation of scopolamine-induced impairment of spontaneous alteration behaviour by antagonist but not inverse agonist and agonist beta-carbolines. Psychopharmacology Berl. Ragozzino, M. Spontaneous alternation and inhibitory avoidance impairments with morphine injections into the medial septum. Attenuation by glucose administration. Glucose attenuates a morphine-induced decrease in hippocampal acetylcholine output: an in vivo microdialysis study in rats.

McNay, E. Decreases in rat extracellular hippocampal glucose concentration associated with cognitive demand during a spatial task.

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USA 97 , — Fluctuations in brain glucose concentration during behavioral testing: dissociations between brain areas and between brain and blood. Bostock, E. Effects of opioid microinjections into the medial septal area on spatial memory in rats. Glucose injections into the medial septum reverse the effects of intraseptal morphine infusions on hippocampal acetylcholine output and memory. Neuroscience 68 , — Pyruvate infusions into the septal area attenuate spontaneous alternation impairments induced by intraseptal morphine injections.

  1. Endogenous Peptides and Learning and Memory Processes.
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Wan, R. Opioid modulation of working memory: intraseptal, but not intraamygdaloid, infusions of beta-endorphin impair performance in spatial alternation. Memory modulation across neural systems: intra-amygdala glucose reverses deficits caused by intraseptal morphine on a spatial task but not on an aversive task.

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Talley, C. Attenuation of morphine-induced behavioral changes in rodents by D- and L-glucose. Age-related differences in hippocampal extracellular fluid glucose concentration during behavioral testing and following systemic glucose administration. A Biol. Morley, J. Beta-amyloid precursor polypeptide in SAMP8 mice affects learning and memory.

Peptides 21 , — Myhrer, T. Prevention of picrotoxin-convulsions-induced learning and memory impairment in rats by nitric oxide increasing dose of L-arginine in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 75 : Paul V, Reddy L. Ekambaram P.


A reversal by L-arginine and sodium nitro-prusside of ageing-induced memory impairment in rats by increasing nitric oxide concentration in the hippocampus. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 49 : Possible involvement of nitric oxide in long-term potentiation. Eur J Pharmacol ; : The nitric oxide donor molsidomine antagonizes age-related memory deficit in rats. Neurobiol Aging ; 26 : Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 87 : The role of nitric oxide in dizocipline-induced impairment of spontaneous alteration behaviour in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Therap ; : Chapman PF. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis impairs two form of learning.

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Neuro Report ; 3 : Effect of nitric oxide synthesis inhibition on c- FOS expression in hippocampus and cerebral cortex following two forms of learning in rats: immunochemistry study. Behav Pharmacol ; 10 : Inhibition of endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase impairs long-term memory formation in the chick. Learn Mem ; 6 : Evidence for an involvement of nitric oxide in memory of shock-avoidance task in rats.

Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 46 : Nitric oxide is necessary for visual learning in Octopus vulgaris. Nitric oxide is necessary for mutiple memory processeses after learning that a food is inedible in aplysia. J Neurosci ; 22 : Impairment of olfactory discrimination by blockade of GABA and nitric oxide activity in the honey bee antennal lobes. Behav Neurosci ; : Inhibitory learning and memory in new born rats influenced by nitric oxide. Neuroscience ; 71 : Learning in a unit T-maze is impaired in rats following systemic treatment with N-omega nitro-L-arginine. Cerebellar nitric oxide is necessary for vestibule-ocular reflex adaptation, a sensorimotor model of learning.

J Neurophysiol ; 74 : Paul V, Ekambaram P. Demonstrating the dose and time-related effects of 7-nitroindazole on picrotoxin-induced convulsions, memory formation, brain nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide concentration in rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 77 : Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors impair tolerance memory formation in radial arm maze task in rats.

Neuropharmacology ; 37 : Sharma R, Kodavanti PR. In vitro effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and hydroxyl metabolites on nitric oxide synthesis in rat brain. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; : Possible role of nitric oxide cyclic GMP in object recognition memory: effects of 7-nitroindazole and zaprinast. Involvement of hippocampal nitric oxide in spatial learning in the rat. Neurobiol Learn Mem ; 90 : Hartiage-Rubsaman M, Achliebs R.

Rat basal forebrain cholinergic lesion affects neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity in hippocampal and neocortical target regions. NO synthesis inhibition decreases cortical ACH release and impairs retention of conditioned response. Dacher M, Gauthier M. Involvement of NO-synthase and nicotinic receptors in learning in the honey bees.


Physiol Behav ; 95 : Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors induces a nitric oxide-dependent long-term depression in rat medial prefrontal cortex. Cereb Cortex ; 20 : Combined administration of sublethal doses of the nitric oxide inhibitor, nitro-L- arginine and muscarinic receptor antagonist, scopolamine, impairs complex maze learning in rats. Behav Pharmacol ; 18 : Pitsikas N. The nitric oxide donor molsidomine antagonizes scopolamine and L-NAME-induced performance deficits in a spatial memory task in the rat.

Nitric oxide associated with iNOS expression inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity and induces memory impairment during acute hypobaric hypoxia.

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Intranasal administration has been associated with improvement on psychometric tests in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and Korsakoff's psychosis, although these findings are not uniform. It improves performance on memory tests in normal volunteers, but does not seem to improve the memory deficit after head trauma. Cerebrospinal fluid levels are low in patients with Alzheimer's disease. ACTH and melanocyte-stimulating hormone MSH are two peptides the primary behavioral effect of which seems to be on attention or goal-motivated behavior rather than on memory processes themselves.