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Guide Globalization and Reform in Higher Education

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Stephen Rowland. Home Contact us Help Free delivery worldwide. Free delivery worldwide. Bestselling Series. Harry Potter. Popular Features. New Releases. Description As the ability of each higher education system to produce the highly-skilled citizens required in the twenty first century becomes crucial, governments are recognizing and responding to global, as well as local, economic and cultural changes. Moreover, as the effects of globalization spread, their impact upon individual governments and their higher education institutions are becoming steadily more apparent.

This book charts the key issues that are involved in reforming higher education to meet new global challenges. It draws on a team of distinguished international researchers from North America, Africa, Australia and Europe who consider particular topics: the reform of governance and finance, the funding of higher education, managerialism, accreditation and quality assurance, the use of performance indicators, faculty roles and rewards, and the cultural, social and ethical dimensions of change.

The concluding section consists of two case studies: the first is a detailed discussion of the Australian government's introduction of higher education reform; the second assesses the transformation of higher education in South Africa in the face of contemporary global and local change. Globalization and Reform in Higher Education enables readers to develop a firm grasp of the current state of play in higher education institutions worldwide, issues to be dealt with, and difficulties that have to be transcended.

The book is essential reading for academics, senior managers, parliamentarians and civil servants involved in higher education policy-making.

The knowledge of educational reform as an effect of globalization: a case in Taiwan

Product details Format Paperback pages Dimensions x x 15mm Other books in this series. High Educ Eur ; Hakimzadeh R.

Globalization in Higher Education

Globalization, internationalization of higher education and interdisciplinary curricula. Q J Interdiscip Stud Humanit ; Adapting to foreign markets: Explaining internationalization. Int Bus Rev ; Internationalization of higher education: Theoretical and empirical investigation of its influence on university institution rankings. Rev Univ Soc Conocimiento ; Knight J. Internationalization remodelled: Definition approaches, and rationales. J Stud Int Educ ; Mashhad, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad; May, Hosaynimoghadam M.

Mahmoudi A, Abedi A. Mohamadaminzade L, Mohamadaminzade H. Babadi A, Mahdavishakib A. Fazeli A.

TRENDS AND INNOVATIONS IN HIGHER EDUCATION REFORM: Worldwide, Latin America and in the Caribbean

Soleimani E. Poureskandari R, Najafi H. Tamanayifar M, Nourmohamadi M. Internationalization of Higher Education in Iran. Ebrahimi F, Ghaderi M.


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Saylane M, Saylane M. Internationalization of curriculum in Iranian higher education system: Challenges and strategies.


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Educ J ; A Study of the internationalization curriculum challenges IOC in universities and educational institutions from the viewpoint of faculty members at Shahid Beheshti university. Zakersalehi G, Salehi Najafabadi M. Suggesting strategies to attract foreign students in Iran. Iranian ofHigher Education ; Curriculum internationalization in Iran's higher education: A distant education perspective. Quarterly journal of new approach in education administration ;2: Interdiscip Stud Humanit ; J High Educ Curriculum Stud ; Comparative study of internationalization of higher education curricula in a number of countries.

Curriculum Planning knowledge and research in education sciences. Diba Vajari T.

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Conceptualizing the internationalizing of curriculum in high education dimensions and procedures. One of the defining features of Japanese universities was their rigorous selection criteria and a notoriously competitive entrance examination system. As a result of these changes, Japanese universities and colleges are being forced not just to revise the way they attract and select applicants and teach them after admission, but also to restructure the way they organize their entire system, from tuition and research to the way they approach funding and administration. The second important major factor is the economy.

The economic slump that began when the bubble economy burst at the beginning of the s and continues to this day has had a major effect on university reforms. This will mean improving the universities responsible for training that workforce and boosting the quality levels of basic and applied research. As a result, political parties and economic groups have rushed to put forward competing proposals for ways to reform the higher education system, aimed at liberalizing and revitalizing tuition and research.

Many have called for universities to be more proactive about pursuing tie-ups with the private sector, particularly in the field of research, and to make greater efforts to carry out organizational reforms. It has been acknowledged for many years that universities play a central role in building a knowledge-based society, and that they have a strategically vital role to play in developing cutting-edge science and technology in an increasingly globalized research environment.

The third important factor concerns changing policy at government level. The Liberal Democratic Party government that came to office under Nakasone Yasuhiro in made a start on transforming government policy. This liberalization got underway in earnest in the early s with the far-reaching changes made to the Standards for Establishment of Universities Daigaku secchi kijun , the regulations defining how universities are organized and setting out the basic conditions of tertiary education.

These reforms gave universities greater freedom to organize curricula and tuition within their departments and freed them from strict regulation. This led to a string of completely new or renamed departments and curricula. The procedures for obtaining official recognition as a university were also relaxed and the number of universities increased rapidly, from accredited schools in to in and in Figure 3.

The structural reforms that followed deregulation extended to university organization and administration, particularly in the national universities that had previously been placed under the direct control of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology. The seminar system, with its long history of small research and tuition groups within each department led by a professor in his or her specialty, broke down. Fixed-length contracts were introduced for teaching faculty, along with a new system of vice-presidents. The allocation of public funding for research was made more competitive, and funding from corporations and other entities was actively encouraged.

They are now under pressure to take this a step further and engage in an even fiercer competition for survival. The transformation of the national universities into corporate entities was a move that gained support in response to the various domestic and international factors pressing for reform, and is perhaps the most striking symbol of the tendency of these reforms.

Faculty members were government employees, and the universities were allowed very little real autonomy in terms of the way they were administered—this included their budgets and hiring decisions.


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It was these national universities that felt the biggest impact from the increasing international competition brought about by globalization, as described above. The national universities are fewer than 90 in number. For example, in the ranking tables for —14 published by the British Times Higher Education , 11 Japanese universities, led by the University of Tokyo in 23rd place, were ranked in the top Science and technology are crucial in order for Japan to be internationally successful in an increasingly competitive economic environment; making these national universities more competitive therefore needs to be a top priority.

After a heated debate, including opposition from the universities themselves, the national universities were released from the direct supervision of the Ministry of Education in and became recognized as independent corporate entities. This essentially amounted to a conversion of the national universities into private institutions.

Globalisation and Reform in Higher Education

Under presidents appointed by a selection committee, boards of directors were organized to take charge of university administration. An administrative deliberation committee, including external committee members, and an education and research evaluation committee appointed by faculty staff were put in place to advise the president. This became the new basic organization of university administration.

Every year the government gives a certain amount of public funding to each of the corporations to support the costs of administration. The universities use this, along with additional funding from tuition and the income they get from affiliated hospitals, research funding from the government and companies, and private donations, to pay for university administration.

In addition, each university submits a medium-term plan for the next six years for approval by the Ministry of Education. In this way, as well as granting autonomy to the national universities, the government and the Ministry of Education made provisions for a large-scale increase in the amount of public funding distributed on a competitive basis.

Part of this funding is available only to the national universities, but the majority of it is open to universities of all kinds national, public, and private and is allocated based on a competitive evaluation of applications for funding. It is worth adding that , when the corporations were launched, was the same year in which requirements for obtaining permission to found private universities were substantially relaxed.

This created the conditions for a rapid increase in the number of newly established universities. It is no exaggeration to say that this change was designed to bring about a revolutionary shakeup in the higher education system. One is reminded of passages from the report Reviews of National Policies for Education: Japan that was published after a research visit to Japan by a team from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in Amongst the universities a few are clearly demarcated from the others in terms of their financial resources, their prestige and the quality of the education they are thought to offer.

The resulting university structure is akin to a pyramid with a very narrow apex and with very little movement between levels.