Evidence shows people in prison are generally sicker and experience the effects of aging more rapidly than their nonincarcerated peers. Assessing the health of the incarcerated More than half of people in US jails and prisons have a mental health problem; the majority of those with mental illness are dually diagnosed with drug or alcohol dependency. James and Lauren E. People in US correctional facilities also have higher rates of both infectious and chronic disease than do people who are not incarcerated. For example, the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B and C, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted infections is consistently higher within than outside prisons.
The number of incarcerated people over the age of 55 has increased by over percent in recent years, 7 Brie A. Williams et al.
A survey by the Bureau of Justice Statistics found that 40 percent of people in prison and jail reported at least one chronic medical condition—most often hypertension, asthma, or arthritis. The same survey found sharp increases in high blood pressure and diabetes among incarcerated people since , with rates of diabetes nearly doubling.
Moreover, 74 percent of people in state and federal prisons 62 percent in jails are overweight, obese, or morbidly obese according to BMI measures. There are multiple reasons why incarcerated people have so many health problems. The deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill and the underfunding of community-based mental health care put jails and prisons on the frontlines of dealing with mental illness. The hyperincarceration of the poor, who often receive inadequate access to health care, means that disproportionate numbers of people enter prison with untreated or undertreated infections and chronic conditions.
Flanigan et al. In addition to all the factors listed above, there is also the possibility—many would argue the reality—that incarceration itself harms health.
Slow Death and Painful Labors
This was the view of some of the incarcerated individuals that my colleague and I interviewed for a research project on health and incarceration in Washington State. Some interviewees directly linked incarceration to disabling levels of anxiety, depression, or PTSD—particularly following solitary confinement. But even those who had not been subject to extreme isolation saw incarceration as eroding their well-being. Incarcerated people and their advocates have long argued that lengthy sentences, in particular life sentences without parole, constitute a form of death by incarceration.
But prisons also harm the body in less overt ways that rarely make headlines. There are a few existing studies that strongly suggest a causal link between incarceration and harm to health. A study of parolees in New York used a dose-response analysis to examine the relationship between time served and life expectancy, and found that those on parole lost approximately two years of life for each year of incarceration.
Evelyn J. With little left beyond tourism, the city known as the Serenissima appears to have little choice. Meanwhile, the resident population has shrunk below 60, Read also: See Venice, but pay an entry fee first. Many business owners have abandoned the old two-tier pricing system that charged visitors more for food and services, meaning locals now pay the same inflated prices that outsiders do. While this is illegal, because the houses belong to a public group which manages them, it has also helped bring some abandoned areas in the city back to life. Every day he faces the risk of eviction, with a post-it on his fridge reminding him that the next police visit is coming up in September.
Floods regularly wreak damage on lower floors of homes, restaurants and shops, and what was once a winter phenomenon is now happening more often, most recently on June 19 of this year. Christopher Cook.
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